名词的数 2不规则变化
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名词的数 2不规则变化

名词的数 2不规则变化第二部分:不规则变化

  

    我们经常会看到有些名词变复数时并没有遵循上述规则。这就是名词的不规则变化。还有一些名词,单复数是同一个形式的。不过,我们还是可以通过一些比较,发现其中的一些奥妙。以下我将为大家讲讲名词的不规则变化。

  一、有些名词中保存了英语中古旧的复数形式,如:

  man-men         woman-women

  tooth-teeth        foot-feet

  child-children     goose-geese

  mouse-mice       ox-oxen

  二、有些是外来词,仍保有原来的复数形式,如:

  Phenomenon-phenomena(现象)

  Formula-formulae(公式)

  Thesis-theses(论文)

  Basis-bases(基础)

  Analysis-analyses(分析)

  Criterion-criteria(标准)

  Crisis-crises(危机)

  Appendix-appendices(附录)

      三、部分单词的复数形式不变。

  例:fish→fish; sheep→sheep; cattle→cattle; deer→deer; salmon→salmon, means→means

  四、compound nouns,这类复数词是以主要的名词来表示

  例:daughter-in-law→daughters-in-law 媳妇; father-in-law→fathers-in-law岳父  

  man-of-war→men-of-war兵舰; maid-servant→maid-servants  

  step-son→step-sons晚子; son-in-law→sons-in-law.

  但是,也有些合成名词,特别是由man和woman构成的合成名词,里面所含的成分,全都要变为复数,如:

  Man-servant-men-servants,woman doctor-women doctors等

  五、有些名词经常是带着-s词尾的,但通常都作单数看待,如:

      Phonetics(语音学),physics(物理学),optics(光学),politics(政治),news(新闻)等。

  六、另一些名词则以复数词出现的机会较多

  例:bellows风箱; clothes; police; shorts短裤; scissors剪刀; spectacles眼镜; shears大剪刀,trousers长裤,wages工资,belongings所有物, surroundings环境,savings储蓄,findings调查结果,arms武器,clothes衣服,stairs楼梯,等

  七、另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,

  例:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼,papers文件,证件,greens青菜,manners礼貌,ruins废墟,troops军队,looks外貌,times时代,等

  第三部分:不可数名词的计量方法

  (1)一般用“数字+of+计量单位+名词”表示,(注意:当数字大于一时,表示计量单位的名词可以有复数形式)。如:

  a piece of news 一则新闻  a piece of meat 一块肉 a glass of wine一杯酒 two bowls of rice  两碗米 a sum of money 一笔钱 five bags of flour 一袋面粉 a drop of water 一滴水 three bottles of milk 三瓶牛奶 two pieces of advice 两条建议

  (2)用much/some/ a little/ little/ a lot of/ plenty of+不可数名词

  练习题:

  1、  All the people at the conference are ______.

  a. mathematic teachers   c. mathematics teacher

  b. mathematics teachers  d. mathematic’s teachers        (C)

  2、All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.

  a. women doctors               c. woman doctors

  b. women doctor                d. woman doctor      (a)

  3、---Are there any ________ on the farm?

  ---Yes, there are some.

  A. horse  B. duck  C. chicken  D. sheep       (D)

  4、--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ?

    --- Certainly.

   A. some bottles of waters   B. some bottles of water

   C. some bottle of water     D. some bottle of waters     (B)

  5、Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday.

   A. tooth   B. feet   C. hand   D. ear        (B)

  6、There is some _______ on the plate.

   A. cakes   B. meat   C. potato   D. pears    (B)

  7、The little baby has two _______ already.

   A. tooth   B. tooths   C. teeth   D. teeths    (C)

  8、We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please?

  A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe      (C)

  

   9、Please remember to give the horse some tree___.

  A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave        (B)

      10、He gave us____ on how to keep fit.

  A. some advices B. some advice C. an advice D. a advice   (B)

      11、Please pass me _____.

  A. two glass of water    B. two glasses of waters  

  C. two glasses of water    D. two glass water    (C)

      12、There are a lot of _______ down there but hardly any _______.

  A. sheeps, people   B.sheep, people  C. sheeps, peoples    D. sheep, peoples    (B)

      13、This table is made of __________.

  A. many glass     B. glasses    C. some glasses   D. glass     (D)

      14、______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.

  A. Looker-on    B. Lookers-on    C. Looker-ons    D. Lookers-ons   (B)

      15、Some ______ are flying kites near the river.

  A. child   B. boy    C. boys     D. childs      (C)

      16、Mr. Smith always has ________ to tell us.

  A. some good pieces of news  B. some pieces of good news 

  C. some good piece of news   D. some piece of good news     (B)

      17、Twelve _______ were hurt, but no _________ were lost in that accident.

  A. person; life     B. people; lives   C. peoples; lives    D. persons; life  (B)

      18、In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.

  A. much    B. lots of    C. a great deal of    D. many      (A)

      19、The police investigated those _____ about the accident.

  A. stander-by                 C. standers-by

  B. stander-bys                D. standers-bys           (B)

      20、Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.

 A. little    B. much    C. a large number of    D. a large amount of     (C)

 

 

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名词的数 2不规则变化
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名词的数 2不规则变化