连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词
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连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词

连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词
连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词
并列连词
1.表示联合关系:连接双方是对等的。常用的有:and, both, both…and, as well as, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also.
  Study hard, and you’ll catch up with others. 努力学习,你就会赶上其他人。
  Neither his classmates nor he has ever spoken to foreigners.
  他的同学和他都没有和外国人讲过话。
  The shoes in this shop are either too big or too small. 
  这个店里的鞋子不是太大就是太小。
2.表示转折关系:连接双方构成对比。常用的有:but, however, while.
  The doctor did his best to save the boy , but the boy didn’t wake up. 
  医生已尽了最大的努力,但是这个男孩没有醒过来。
  Lucy likes reading books at home while Lily likes going out to play. 
  露茜喜欢在家里看书,而莉莉喜欢出去玩。
3.表示选择关系:连接双方只取其一。常用的有:or, either…or.
  Which country has a larger population, Indian or Russia? 
  哪一个国家的人口多,印度还是俄国?
4.表示因果关系:连接双方互为因果。常用的有:for, so.
  It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet now.
  昨晚一定下了雨,因为地上现在是湿的。
  It is getting dark, so I have to leave now. 天渐渐黑了,所以现在我必须离开了。
连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词

从属连词
从属连词是指在复合句中引导从句的连结词。
1、当while, when, as引导时间状语从句时的区别:
①while引导的状语从句中动词必须是持续性。谓语动词多为进行时,或状态动词的一般时。while 的这些用法可用when代替,等于 “at the time that”, “during the time that”。
   Please keep quiet while (when) others are studying;
② when除可指一段时间外,还可用来指一点时间,等于 “at the time”,也就是说when引出的时间状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的,也可以延续性的。因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时,进行时,或完成时。
  When I went into the lab, the teacher was doing an experiment.(when不能换成while)
  He often makes mistakes when he is speaking English.(when可换成while)
③as常可与when,while通用,但强调“一边、一边”。
  As (when, while) I was walking down the street, I noticed a police car in front of number 37. 
④when引导的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致,主、谓是“主语+系动词”结构时,这时主语和系动词可以省略。
  When (he was) young, he worked for a rich man./ She’ll be here to give you help when (if it is) necessary.
⑤when有时代替if,引导条件句,意为“如果”、“假如”
  I’ll come when (if) I’m free.
2、before作连词一般表示时间,意为“在…之前”,但有些句子中这样译就显得别扭。
  He almost knocked me down before he saw me.他几乎把我撞倒才看见我;
3、till, until作为介词式从属连词引导时间状语短语或状语从句,用于否定句时,结构为not …until (till),主句谓语动词延续与非延续皆可,意为“直到…才…”。用于肯定句时,只与延续性动词连用,表示“到…为止”。
  They played volleyball until (till) it got dark.
  They didn’t talk(延续性动词)until (till) the interpreter(译员)came.
  He didn’t go to bed(非延续性动词)until (till) the his father came back.;
  until可以放在句首,till则不行, 
  Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing.
  Not until he finished his work did he go home.(倒装);
  till, until只用于时间,以下句子是错误的:
  We walked till the edge of the forest.(要用as far as或to)。
4、because, since, as引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别:①如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用because ,因此because引导的从句往往放在句末。用why提问的句子,一定用because回答。
  He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.;
②如原因已为人们所知,或不如句子的其他部分重要,就用as,或 since。since比as更正式些。as和since引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。 
  As you are tired, you had better rest./ Since everyone is here, now let’s begin.
5、although和though引导让步状语从句往往用法一样,但注意以下区别:①although用于各种文体,而though则多用于非正式的口语或书面语中。注意由although, though引导的从句后,主句不能用but,但可用副词yet, still。 
  Although/ Though it rained all the morning, they still went on working.(或yet they went on working)
②though常与even连用,even though表示强调,意为“即使”,但不能说even although
  Even though I didn’t understand a word, I dept smiling.
③though可用作副词,意为“然而”,常用逗号与句子分开。although则不能这样使用,它只作连词。
  It was a quiet party, I had a good time, though.
6、once作副词译“曾经”,作为连词译“一旦”,引导条件状语从句。相当于if的加强形式。 
  I don’t believe he was once a thief. (once这里是副词)
  Once Aristotle had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects, he taught it as a truth to his students. (once连词)
7、unless引导条件状语从句等于if … not …。 
  He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low. ( = He’ll accept the job if the salary is not too low.)
8、在用as if引导的方式状语从句及表语从句中,根据情况要使用虚拟语气。 
  He talks as if he knew all about it. 
  但有时也可用直陈语气。
  It looks as if it is going to rain.
9、whether, if引导从句的用法区别:
①引导主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句时,用whether,不用if。 
 Whether they will go to the Great Wall is not known.
 The question is whether we can finish the task on time.
 The question whether we will take part in the physics contest has not been decided.
②whether可接不定式,而if则不可。 
  I haven’t decided whether to leave or not. 
③whether可作介词的宾语或置于句首表示强调,而if则不可。 
  Everything depends on whether we have enough money.
  Whether he will come, I am not sure. 
④whether和if均可引导宾语从句, whether引导的宾语从句一般都是肯定句,if引导的宾语从句可以是肯定的,也可以是否定的(此时不能用whether), 
  Could you tell us whether/ if it rains in winter in Australia?
  I wonder if it doesn’t rain.
⑤引导宾语从句的whether和if常可与or not连用。连用时要注意or not的位置,它一般与 whether、if分开使用,有时它可与whether合起来使用,但不能与if合起来使用。 
  I don’t know whether/ if they will come or not./ I don’t know whether or not they will come.
⑥if可用来引导条件状语从句,译“如果”,whether则不行。 
  If you work hard, you are sure to succeed.
10、as作从属连词可引导多种状语从句。
①as引导时间状语从句,意为“当…时”。 
  As (he was) a young man, he was a storekeeper and later a postmaster./ He sang as he worked.
②as引导方式状语从句,意为“象…一样”。 
  We must do as the Party teaches us.
③as引导原因状语从句。意为“由于”, 
  As you are tired, you had better rest.
④as引导让步状语从句。意为“虽然”、“尽管”
  Child as he is, he can do it well. ( = Although he is a child, he can do it well.)
另外,as做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句,
  I have the same book as you.
连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词

引导让步状语从句的连词
引导让步状语从句的连词主要有以下这些:though, although, as; even if, even though; whether...or...; no matter+疑问词,疑问词-ever。下面对这些连词引导的让步状语从句作一说明。
1.though, although表示“虽然,纵然”之意。
这两个连词意思大致相同,在一般情况下可以互换使用。在口语中,though较常使用,although比though正式,二者都可与yet, still或nevertheless连用,但不能与but连用。  
  Alhough/Though he was worn out, (still) he kept on working.
  虽然他已经精疲力竭了,但仍然继续工作。
  Although/Though he is very old, (yet)he is quite strong.
  他虽然年纪大了,身体还很健壮。
值得注意的是,although引导的让步状语从句位于主句之前的情况较多,though引导的让步状语从句可位于主句之前或主句之后。  
  She passed the examination though she had not studied very hard. 
  她虽然不用功学习,考试却及格了。
2.as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。
as引导的让步状语从句必须以部分倒装的形式出现,被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于这样的结构中,但although不可以这样用。  
  Object as you may, I " ll go.=Though/Although you may object, I " ll go.
  纵使你反对,我也要去。
3.even if, even though 表示“即使……”,“纵使……”之意。
这两个复合连词的意思基本相同。它们常可互换使用,但意义有细微差别。even if引导的让步从句含有强烈的假定性,而even though引导让步状语从句时,是以从句的内容为先决条件的,也就是说,说话人肯定了从句的事实。  
  We " ll make a trip even if/though the weather is bad. 
  即使天气不好,我们也要作一次旅行。
4.whether...or...表示“不论是否……”,“不管是……还是……”之意。
由这一个复合连词引导的让步状语从句旨在说明正反两个方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果。  
  You " ll have to attend the ceremony whether you " re free or busy. 
  不管你忙不忙,都要参加这个典礼。
5.“no matter+疑问词”或“疑问词-ever”的含义为“……都……;不管……都……”,它们引导的让步状语从句可以互换。  
  No matter what happened, he would not mind. =Whatever happened, he would not mind.
  无论发生了什么,他都不会介意的。
但“no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,而“疑问词-ever”还可以引导名词性从句。  
   Whatever(=No matter what)you say, I won " t believe you.
   (Whatever 引导让步状语从句)无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。
   I " ll eat whatever(≠no matter what)you give me. 
   (whatever引导宾语从句)你给我吃什么,我就吃什么。
   Whoever comes will be welcome.
   (Whoever 引导主语从句) 不管谁来都受到欢迎。
此外,有时while也可以引导让步状语从句,但一般要位于句首。  
  While I like the colour, I don " t like the shape.我虽然喜欢那颜色,但不喜欢那形状综上所述,我们可以看出,学习让步状语从句的关键是关联词的选用;其次,要注意的是由as引导的让步状语从句要用倒装语序。 
   让步状语从句表示:虽然,尽管,即使等概念,由although(尽管), though(尽管), however(无论怎样), whatever(无论什么), whoever(无论谁), whomever(无论谁), whichever(无论哪个), whenever(无论何时), wherever(无论哪里), whether(是否), no matter (who, what, where, when, etc) (无论……), even if(即使), even though(即使)等词引导。
   We won”t be discouraged even if(=even though) we fail ten times.
   我们就是失败十次也不泄气。

连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词
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连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词
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连词,并列连词,从属连词,引导让步状语从句的连词