英语语法——分词
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英语语法——分词

英语语法——分词

  分词也是动词的另一种非谓语形式,有-ing形式与-ed形式两种。由于前面已经讲过动名词,这种形式跟-ing是一样的,所以这讲,着重讲解-ed分词。

    -ed分词即我们平常所说的动词过去分词。它有两种形式:规则动词形式和不规则动词形式。规则动词形式由规则动词+-ED构成;不规则动词有其特殊的-ED分词。在语法功能上,它在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING分词相同,可以作表语,定语,状语,也可以用在复合结构中,不管它作什么成分,其最基本的含义是“被动”的。-ED分词在语法功能和意义上与-ing分词有一定的区别。

  一、-ed分词作表语

  过去分词作表语一般用来表示感受、状态(系词+分词)。如:

  We were very interested in the novel she gave us yesterday.

  我们对她昨天给我们的小说非常感兴趣。

  She was quite frightened by the sudden noise outside the door.

  她被门外突然的吵闹声吓住了。

  可以用作表语的常见过去分词有:

  amazed, amused, astonished, broken, closed, completed, confused, disappointed, discouraged, dressed, drunk, excited, experienced, faded, frightened, hurt, interested, known, learned, lost, married, pleased, puzzled, qualified, satisfied, surprised, tired, unprepared, unknown, upset, worried等。

  二、作定语的-ed分词

  -ed分词可以作前置定语也可以作后置定语,作后置定语时相当于一个定语从句。

  1.-ed分词可以作前置定语,此时,分词与名词之间有两种语义关系:一种是分词表示主动意义;一种是分词表示被动意义。如:

  He is a retired worker.

  他是一个退休工人。

  This is a newly-developed device.

  这是一个新开发的工具。

  2.-ed分词作后置定语时,其功能相当于一个定语从句。如:

  She likes to drink cold boiled water.

  他喜欢喝凉白开。

  They were inspecting the houses damaged by the storm.

  他们正在视察被暴风雨毁坏的房屋。

  1) Commercial banks make most of their income from ______ interest on loans and investments in stocks and bonds.

  [A] earn

  [B] earned

  [C] to earn

  [D] was earned

  解析:B为正确答案。空档前是一完整的句子,在没有连词的情况下,不能填充A和D;根据题意,“利息”是“通过…(被)挣来的”,有被动之意,所以选B。

  2) On his return from his _______ college, he found the house.

  [A] deserting

  [B] deserted

  [C] desert

  [D] to be deserted

  解析:B为正确答案。此句的意思是“房子”被“遗弃,没人住”,是被动的意义,而A和C都不符合这一点。D是动词不定式,一般表示将来或具体动作,所以D也不对。

  3) 改错:The age [A] of a geological sample can be estimated [B] from the ratio of radioactive to nonradioactive carbon present [C] in the object is examined [D].

  解析:D错。应去掉多余的“is”,使-ED分词“examined”作后置定语修饰“object”。C处并没有错。“present”是形容词,它与后面的成分构成形容词短语修饰限定前面的“the ratio...carbon”。

  三、用作状语的-ED分词

  这样的-ed分词通常来自及物动词。-ed分词用作状语时,跟-ing分词作状语时一样,修饰主句的谓语动词,意义上相当于状语从句,表示时间,条件,原因,伴随状况等。-ed分词结构作状语,前边往往可以加when, while, if, as if, though。这时,我们可以把-ed分词结构理解为一个省略句,即省去了“主语和be的变化形式”。一般说来,这种结构的逻辑主语必须与主句的主语一致。

  1. 表示时间

  4) Inaugurated a second time on March 4, 1901, ______focused on domestic rather than oreign policies.

  [A] William McKinley's new term looked forward to and

  [B] the new term looked forward to William McKinley and

  [C] looking forward to a new term was William McKinley

  [D] William McKinley looked forward to a new term

  解析:D为正确答案。这句话前半句的-ed分词相当于一个时间状语从句“When he was inaugurated a second time …”,主句的主语应当是人,所以A和D为可能选项,但A中的look forward to后应跟名词,那么只有D为正确选项。

  2. 表示条件

  5) ________under a microscope, a fresh snowflake has a delicate six pointed shape.[A] Seen

  [B] Sees

  [C] Seeing

  [D] To see

  解析:A为正确答案。本句的意思是“在显微镜下看,雪花……”,显然这里的看是“被观察”之义。B、C、D都表示主动,A为正确选项。

  

  -ed分词作状语跟-ing作状语一样,修饰主句的谓语动词,意义上相当于状语从句,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随状况等。

  1.表示时间

  Seen from a distance, the mountain looked like a lion.

  从远处看,这座山脉象一头狮子。

  2.表示原因

  Criticized unfairly, she left the office without saying a word.

  由于受到不公平的批评,她默默地离开了办公室。

  3.表示条件

  Watered once a day, the flower will grow very well.

  如果每天浇一次水,这花会长得很好。

  4.表示伴随状况

  He stood there, fascinated by the singing.

  他站在那儿,被歌声所吸引。

    在句子深层结构中,-ed分词短语的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。如果-ed分词短语的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,-ed分词短语的逻辑主语则需要用一个独立结构或者用一个由with/without等引导的介词短语表达出来。如:

  The question settled, they left for home.

  问题解决了,他们就回家了。

  With everything taken into consideration, we all think this is a good suggestion.

  统观全局,我们认为这是一个好的提议。

  

  6) __________ to steel, chromium(铬) increases the metal's hardness.

  [A] Added

  [B] In addition

  [C] Adding

  [D] Adds

  解析:A为正确答案。(同上)

  7) __________ enough food and water, they could have beaten the enemy.

  [A] Being given

  [B] Given

  [C] Give

  [D] To give

  解析:B为正确答案。(同上)

  3. 表示原因

  8) Encouraged by his mother, ________________________.

  [A] art was studied in Florence by John Singer Sargent

  [B] Florence was where John Singer Sargent studied art

  [C] the study of art in Florence by John Singer Sargent

  [D] John Singer Sargent studied art in Florence.

  解析:D为正确答案。四个选项中,只有D的主语为“John Singer Sargent”(人名) ,而只有人才能被“encouraged”(鼓舞),也就是说,只有D中的主语能充当空白前-ED分词短语的逻辑主语。

  9) __________ by the decision, the lawyer quickly left the court room.

  [A] Angering

  [B] Having angered

  [C] Being angry

  [D] Angered

  解析:D为正确答案。空白处只能用-ED分词才可和后面的“by”短语发生联系,并且其逻辑主语和主句主语一致。

  10) Written in great haste, ____________________.

  [A] Jim made a lot of mistakes in the report

  [B] there are plenty of errors in the report

  [C] we found several mistakes in his report

  [D] the books is full of errors.

  解析:D为正确答案。本句的意思是“由于(被)写得急,……”,所以A和C不对。虽然B中的主语“plenty of errors”与“written”逻辑上可以呼应,但与“in the great haste”不一致。 “Written in great haste”的逻辑主语还是“the books”。所以D正确。

  4. 表示伴随状况:

  -ed分词结构作状语表示伴随状况时,没有适当的分句可替换。

  11) ______________ was not incorporated as a city until almost two centuries later, in 1834.

  [A] Settling Brooklyn, the Dutch

  [B] The Dutch settled Brooklyn

  [C] Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch

  [D] Settled by the Dutch, Brooklyn

  解析:D为正确答案。从上下文看,空档处的主语应是表示要点的名词(“as a city”),那么A不对;B和C都是一分句,而空档后是谓语部分,它们不作为正确选项。

  12) Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, __________ completely to the outside world.

  [A] being lost

  [B] having lost

  [C] losing

  [D] lost

  解析:D为正确答案。

  5. 表示让步

  13) Francis Preston Blair, Jr., __________ born in Kentucky, lived and practiced law in issouri.

  [A] was

  [B] he was

  [C] although

  [D] who he was

  解析:C为正确答案。

  6. 表示结果

  14) _____________ in all parts of the state, pines are the most common trees in Georgia.

  [A] Found

  [B] Finding them

  [C] To find them

  [D] They are found

  解析:正确答案为A。本句的主语为pines(松树) ,这样就排除了B 选项,因为-ING分词表主动,而“松树”不可能是“找”(find)这个动作的逻辑主语,即动作发出者。故只有A“found”(被发现) 的逻辑主语与“pines”一致,应选A。

  7. 表示目的

  15) They should be kept here ___________ this matter.

  [A] informing about

  [B] be informed

  [C] be informed of

  [D] informed of

  解析:D为正确答案。

  8. 表示背景和衬托

  16) Known for her caricatures(漫画) of the United States society, ______________________.

  [A] Peggy Brown wrote and illustrated books for children

  [B] the writing and illustrating of books for children by Peggy Brown

  [C] children's books were written and illustrated by Peggy Brown

  [D] Peggy Brown's writing and illustrating of children's books

  解析:A为正确答案。空档前是-ed分词短语,空档处应是主谓俱全句,排除B和D。从-ED分词短语中(Known for her …)可知,主句的主语是人而不是物,所以C也不对。

  17) Well known as a splendid pianist in Boston, _______________.

     A] we all are pleased to hear Mr. Anderson's concerto(小协奏曲)

  [B] a concerto was composed by Mr. Anderson

  [C] Mr. Anderson composed a concerto

  [D] Mr. Anderson's concerto was composed

  解析:C为正确答案。(同上)

  四、-ed分词在复合结构中

  Don't get your schedule changed; stay with us in this class.

  Peter had his gas and electricity turned on when he moved into his new apartment last month.

  He kept his mouth shut and stayed where he was.(他闭口不言,呆在原地不动。)

  They are talking about the experiment made in the new lab.

  五、独立结构

  如果-ed分词短语与-ing短语带有与句子主语不同的主语,即本短语自己本身带有主语,这就构成了独立结构(也叫独立主格结构或垂悬结构),这种结构也可作状语表示时间,原因等。有时在独立结构前还可加介词with 或 without。

  Her eyes filled with tears, she did not notice his coming.

  18) This ________, we went out to play.

  [A] was done

  [B] did

  [C] was dong

  [D] done

  解析:D为正确答案。A是不对的,如果we前加上and,才能选A。

  19) _______ all his followers dead, the commander was taken by his enemy.

  [A] For

  [B] As

  [C] Because of

  [D] With

  解析:D为正确答案。

 

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英语语法——分词
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英语语法——分词